Groningen Frailty Indicator

  • Administration time: 5 minutes
  • Relies on self-report only
  • Multidimensional assessment


1. Is the patient able to carry out these tasks single-handedly and without any help? (The use of help resources such as walking stick, walking frame, wheelchair, is considered independent)

Physical fitness

  • 2. What mark does the patient give himself/herself for physical fitness? (scale 0 to 10)


  • 3. Does the patient experience problems in daily life due to poor vision?


  • 4. Does the patient experience problems in daily life due being hard of hearing?


  • 5. During the last 6 months has the patient lost a lot of weight unwillingly?
    ( > 3 kg in 1 month or > 6 kg in 2 months)


  • 6. Does the patient take 4 or more different types of medicine?


  • 7. Does the patient have any complaints about his/her memory or is the patient known to have a dementia syndrome?

Psychosocial components

  • 8. Does the patient sometimes experience an emptiness around him/her?

  • 9. Does the patient sometimes miss people around him/her?

  • 10. Does the patient sometimes feel abandoned?

  • 11. Has the patient recently felt downhearted or sad?

  • 12. Does the patient sometimes felt nervous or anxious?

Key references

  • Steverink N, Slaets JPJ, Schuurmans H, van Lis M. Measuring frailty: Development and testing of the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI). Gerontologist. 2001;41(special issue 1):236–237.
  • Schuurmans H, Steverink N, Lindenberg S, Frieswijk N, Slaets JP. Old or frail: what tells us more? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004 Sep;59(9):M962-5. doi: 10.1093/gerona/59.9.m962. PMID: 15472162.
  • Bielderman A, van der Schans CP, van Lieshout MR, de Greef MH, Boersma F, Krijnen WP, Steverink N. Multidimensional structure of the Groningen Frailty Indicator in community-dwelling older people. BMC Geriatr. 2013 Aug 22;13:86. doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-13-86. PMID: 23968433; PMCID: PMC3766248.

Alternative tools to Groningen Frailty Indicator

Frailty Phenotype

Tilburg Frailty Indicator

Edmonton Frail Scale