Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) Index

  • Administration time: 3 minutes
  • Requires physical performance test
  • Measures physical frailty

Weight loss

1. Has the person lost more than 5% of body weight over the past 2 years, irrespective of intent to lose weight?

Muscle weakness

2. Is the person able to rise from a chair 5 times without using his/her arms?

Reduced energy level

3. “Do you feel full of energy?”

Key references

  • Ensrud KE, Ewing SK, Taylor BC, Fink HA, Cawthon PM, Stone KL, Hillier TA, Cauley JA, Hochberg MC, Rodondi N, Tracy JK, Cummings SR. Comparison of 2 frailty indexes for prediction of falls, disability, fractures, and death in older women. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Feb 25;168(4):382-9. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2007.113. PMID: 18299493.
  • Ensrud KE, Ewing SK, Cawthon PM, Fink HA, Taylor BC, Cauley JA, Dam TT, Marshall LM, Orwoll ES, Cummings SR; Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Research Group. A comparison of frailty indexes for the prediction of falls, disability, fractures, and mortality in older men. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Mar;57(3):492-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02137.x. Epub 2009 Feb 22. PMID: 19245414; PMCID: PMC2861353.

Alternative tools to SOF Index


Clinical Frailty Scale


Vulnerable Elder Survey-13