How to choose a frailty tool

There are several frailty assessment tools available, each varying in assessment time, domains covered, and methods used. It is important to select a frailty tool that aligns with the specific purpose of your assessment.

For screening or risk stratification purposes, particularly in individuals with low clinical suspicion for frailty (such as those who are generally healthy or have only a few comorbidities), a brief tool based on self-report or clinical judgment may be more appropriate.

For individualized care planning and management in individuals with high clinical suspicion for frailty (such as those with multimorbidity or disability), a comprehensive multi-domain tool is preferable. Such tools can help identify reversible causes and find targets for interventions.

The table below presents a list of commonly used frailty assessment tools and their assessment domains. These tools vary in their target populations, with some designed for general population and others developed for patients with certain diseases or those undergoing specific treatments.

List of commonly used frailty tools

Tools for general population

FRAIL Questionnaire 3          
SOF Index 3              
Clinical Frailty Scale 3        
PRISMA-7 3          
Vulnerable Elder Survey-13 5            
Frailty Phenotype 5          
Tilburg Frailty Indicator 5    
Groningen Frailty Indicator 5        
Edmonton Frail Scale 10      
CGA-FI 30    

Tools for specific patient populations

Risk Analysis Index (surgery) 3          
G-8 (cancer) 3            
Liver Frailty Index (end-stage liver disease) 5                
Myeloma Frailty Score (multiple myeloma) 5                
Essential Frailty Toolset (aortic valve replacement) 10